B1 - EXTRACT FROM CHAPER 2 OF BAKEWELL, ANCIENT CAPITAL OF THE PEAK, BY TREVOR BRIGHTON, Hallsgrove, 2005.

So Bakewell passed, on Henry II’s death, to his first son, Richard 1, and then to John. They disposed of the royal holdings in Bakewell. …  First, in 1192, the land endowments and the tithes were granted by Prince John … to the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield and to the Dean and Chapter of that see. From that day the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield have held … the right to appoint the vicar.

Next, after his accession in 1189, King Richard himself disposed of the royal manor of Bakewell to a loyal Essex landowner, Ralph Gernon. 

The possession of the tithes of Bakewell parish was a matter of contention, leading to active hostility between the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and Lenton Priory, near Nottingham. The latter was founded by William Peveril, who endowed it with part of the tithes of … Bakewell. Lichfield challenged Lenton’s claim, asserting the grant made by Prince John and confirmed by him after his accession as king in 1199. Following persistent disputes the matter was referred to the pope for judgment. His representative in England arrived at a compromise whereby Lenton Priory collected the tithes but the Dean and Chapter received a payment from the Priory.  … The Prior of Lenton protested to King Henry III … He reasserted the earlier papal judgement. Presumably this arrangement held until Henry VIII’s dissolution of the priory, when the tithes would have reverted to Lichfield.  

B3 - TWO LEASES OF THE PARSONAGE HOUSE AND LANDS IN BAKEWELL, ASHFORD AND GREAT LONGSTONE DATED 1712 and 1777.

By J. B. Pierrepont in Bakewell & District Historical Society Journal for 1986.

Shortly before he left Bakewell to take up his new appointment in Sussex, Dr. Brighton found in the Gell archives in the Derbyshire Record Office at Matlock a lease by Sir Phillip Gell to Francis Roe, the Elder, of Parwich, yeoman dated 17.1.1712. This lease has been transcribed by the writer and is here reproduced in full by courtesy of Lt.—Col. Chandos—Gell.

It will be seen that the properties are described as being in the possession of John and George Taylor suggesting that there had probably been a previous lease to them. A search through the catalogue of Gell leases and conveyances in the Derbyshire Record Office however, did not reveal any other previous leases since that of the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield to Ralf Gell in 1534. There is however a mention of a lease to a ‘Christopher Plant’ in the 1638 rental of John Gell.

Phillip was concerned to protect his trees, only permitting Francis to take wood for ‘Plow boot’ and ‘Cart boot’, the rights to take wood to make and repair ploughs and carts, respectively.

‘Lunes’ — the only other word that seems to need any explanation, is a dialect word meaning taxes or rates and is especially used for church dues. (English Dialect Dictionary. Ed. Joseph Wright.)

The later lease dated 1777 by Phillip Gell to Sir Richard Arkwright was transcribed by Dr. Brighton, but as it is such a long and repetitive document it was decided not to reproduce it in full, but to extract the field names and one or two other items of interest.

In this lease the properties are described as being in the tenure or occupation of Richard Roe, who was probably the grandson of the Francis Roe of the 1712 lease.

Sir Richard, not being a farmer but an industrialist, is not granted ‘Plow and Cart boot’, nor was he required to rear a greyhound.

At that time (1777) inclosure was in the air and its possibility is taken into account. In the event the property was sold before inclosure took place in 1810 and so Phillip Gell’s name does not appear amongst those to whom allotments were granted.

It is interesting to see on the following sketch maps how Phillip Gell held his lands in strips all over the old open fields, a system of farming that finally came to an end with inclosure.

The sketch maps are taken from a copy, made by the late Mr. C. R. Allcock, of three sketch maps with field names and sale catalogue numbers produced in connection with the sale in 1796. This copy is in the Old House Museum. Most of the fields listed can be located on these maps.

ARTICLES of Agreement Indented had made Consented unto and agreed upon this seavententh day of January in the Yeare of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred and twelve and in the Eleventh yeare of the Reign of Queen Anne of Great Brittayne ffrance and Ireland Defender of the ffaith etc. BETWEENE Sir Phillip Gell of Hopton in the County of Derby Barronet of the one part and ffrancis Roe the Elder of Parwich in the said County Yeoman of the other part as ffolloweth

FFIRST The said Sir Phillipp Gell for and in Consideration of the payment of the yearly rents and the performance of the Covenants and agreements hereinafter agreed to bee paid and performed by the said ffrancis Roe his heires Executors or Administrators hath leased sett and to ffarme letten and by these presents doth Lease sett and to farme lett unto the said ffrancis Roe his Executors Administrators and Assignes ALL that the Parsonage house and Tenement situate in Bakewell and in Ashford and Great Longson in the Parrish of Bakewell aforesaid all or some of them in the said County of Derby called the Parsonage Tenement and all the severall dwelling Houses and buildings in Bakewell aforesaid parcell thereof thereunto belonging and therewith enjoyed with their and every of their Appurtenances and all the pasture and arrable Lands and Meadow grounds of the said Sir Phillip Gell in Bakewell aforesaid and in Ashford and Great Longson aforesaid and in the Parrish of Bakewell aforesaid with the Commons thereunto belonging now in the possession of John Taylor and George Taylor together with all wayes waters Easements Commons Comodities and Advantages thereunto belonging or therewith Enjoyed and all the estate right title and interrest of the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes of in or unto the same Except and alwayes reserved out of theses presents All trees and young wood of Ash Oake or Elme now growing or which shall grow upon the said premisses dureing the said terme saving such onely as shall from time to time he taken had or lised by the said ffrancis Roe his Executors Administrators and Assignes for Plow boot and Cart boot to be set out from time to time as there shall be occasion by the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires and Assignes for that purpose TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the said Leased messuage Tenement and premisses with their and every of their appurtenances from the ffive and twentyeth day of March next ensueing for the terme of one whole yeare and soe from yeare to yeare as long as both parties shall please yeilding and paying therefore yearly and every yeare soe longe as the said ffrancis Roe shall hould the said premisses unto the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes the yearly rent of One hundred and Thirty pounds of lawfull money of Great Brittayne Upon the Nine and Twentyeth dày of September and the ffive and Twentyeth day of March cleere of and over and above all manner of Taxes Assessments or impositions Parliamentry or otherwise whatsoever and it is agreed betweene the said partyes hereunto That when the said Sir Phillip Gell shall be minded to take the said demised premisses into his owne hand or dispose thereof otherwise than to the said ffrancis Roe Or that the said ffrancis Roe shall leave the same That in either case as it shall happen either of the said partyes shall give to the other six monthes Notice of their pleasure and determination therein.

SECONDLY the said ffrancis Roe for himselfe his heires Executors and administrators and for every of them doth Covenant grant Article and agree to and with the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires and Assignes That hee the said ffrancis Roe his heires Executors or Adminstrators or some of them shall and will well and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes the aforesaid yearly rent of One hundred and Thirty pounds of lawfull money of great Brittayne at and upon the aforesaid Nine and Twentyeth day of September and the said ffive and twerityeth day of March yearly and every yeare soe longe as he and they shall enjoy the said Leased premisses by even and equall portions or within Eight and Twenty dayes next after the said respective dayes of payment And one fat Weather on the first day of January or within one month after at the Election of the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes as to the time of payment thereof cleere over and above all taxations Lunes payments Assessments Impositions by Act of Parliament or otherwise whatsoever and without any manner of deduction Defalcation or abatement out of the same for or in respect thereof And alsoe shall and will dureing the said terme well and sufficiently reare breed keep and maintaine for the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes one hound or Greyhound at his or their pleasure when and as often as they shall bee thereunto required and have the same sent to him or them for that purpose.

THIRDLY The said ffrancis Roe for himselfe his heires Executors and Administrators and for every of them doth further Covenant grant promise and agree to and with the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires Executors and Administrators shall and will eat Expend and bestow all the hey and straw which shall be gott in upon and from the said premisses or any part thereof dureing all the time he and they shall enjoy the same at in and upon the same premisses and shall not sell or any way dispose thereof or any part thereof to be eaten Expended or bestowed elsewhere dureing the said time and shall and will dureing that time yearly and every yeare lead carry and sett all the Manure Compost and Dung that shall be made by the meanes aforesaid upon such part or parts of the said premisses as shall from time to time most want and require the same and shall and will Manure and help the said lands with such other Compost muck and lime as shall be necessary to help all the said lands as well arrable and pasture as the Meadow lands in such manner as to keepe the same in good and sufficient heart husbandry and Tennantable order and in such good order will leave and Yeild up the same to the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires and Assignes at their leaving thereof and shall leave to the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires and Assignes all the muck and manure that shall bee made from the hey and straw of the said premisses that shall not bee sett thereon at his said leaving thereof without selling giving or any way disposing thereof or any part thereof to the end the same may be sett upon the said premisses.

FFOURTHLY The said ffrancis Roe for himselfe his heires Executors and Administrators doth further Covenant grant article and agree to and with the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires and Assignes That hee the said ffrancis Roe his Executors and Administrators shall and will well and truly pay or cause paid unto the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Asignes the summe of ffive pounds for every acre he or they shall plow and turne into tillage in any of the Inclosed lands parcell of the said premisses dureing the said Time saveing that the said ffrancis Roe and his Assignes may plow the Gell Marsh Meadow once only and no more to lay it faire downe on which he is to lime it or manure it in a good husbandly manner on the well limeing or manureing whereof the said Sir Phillip Gell is to pay or allow him ffive pounds and that he the said ffrancis Roe his Executors Administrators and Assignes dureing the time he or they shall hould the said premisses shall and may keepe in tillage the inclosed lands or grounds (parcell of the said tenement) called the Barloe ffeilds in such manner as hath been accustomed and shall and will till and keepe the ffeild Lands and Barloe ffeilds aforesaid parcell of the said premisses in orderly tillage and well and sufficiently manure and help the same from time to time with manure dung and Lime and at his or their leaving of the said Leased premisses will leave such a competent part and proportion of the said ffeild land in husbandly tillage plowed and sowne with hard corne as is and hath been yearly plowed and tilled in any of the precedent yeares for the plowing and the seed whereof he is to be allowed a reasonable satisfaction by the said Sir Phillip Gell his heires or Assignes.

LASTLY The said Sir Phillip Gell in Consideration of the payment of the said yearly rent and performance of the Covenants aforesaid doth for himselfe his heires Executors and Administrators promise Article and agree to and with the said ffrancis Roe his Executors and Administrators well and sufficiently to repaire and sett in Tenantable repaire the Gotters of the said Parsonage house before the Twenty ffifth day of June next insueing And that on payment of the said yearly rent and performance of the Covenants and agreements aforesaid the said ffrancis Roe his Executors and Administrators shall and may peaceably and quietly have hold and enjoy the said premisses for and dureing the said Terme without the lett suite trouble or disturbance of the said Sir Phillip Cell his heires or Assignes in WTTTNSSE whereof the partyes above said have hereunto putt their hands and seals the day and yeare first above written.

ffrancis Roe

LEASE BY PHILIP GELL TO RICHARD ARKWRIGHT  1777. Derbyshire Record Office. Gell Ms.52/E1.

This INDENTURE made the Sixth day of November in the eighteenth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third etc and in the year One Thousand seven hundred and seventy seven between Philip Gell of Hopton and Richard Arkwriht of Cromford. Philip Gell leased to Richard Arkwright All that Messuage or Tenement situate in Bakewell now in the Tenure or occupation of Richard Roe AND ALSO all those several closes, inclosures, pieces or parcels of land, meadow and Pasture Ground hereinafter mentioned, that is to say:—

BAKEWELL
Parsonage Yard
Little Yard below the house
The Orchard
Pickford Yard
The Heald
The Hay or Barlow Closes

Haredale Closes
do. do.
Crow Hill Close
do. do
Blind Pit Meadow
Little Lumford

The list, with areas, continues with Gell March (marsh?) in Great Longstone, and many strips in the arable open fields: Stone Edge Field, Middle Field and Far Field; and doles in Bakewell Meadow. It continues with:

Barn called Woolanes Barn & Kill House
Two old houses and garden called Berries Ford and Nailors Houses
Two houses in Bakewell in possession of Joseph Fogg & John Vickers
Nether Barn and Fold Yard
Fifteen Gates for Fifteen Beasts and half a Gate for one beast in the Old Pasture

all of which premises now are or late were in the Tenure or occupation of the said Richard Arkwright and Richard Roe, their assigns, tenants etc.

Philip Gell reserves to himself and his heirs the right and property of the fish in the river Wye and all other waters in the above mentioned premises and he is to have access in order to fish.

The article finishes with the 1796 maps of the open field and meadow strips and their names transcribed by Mr C R Allcock and  mentioned in Mr Pierrepont’s introduction.  One of them is copied to go with this extract as it shows at no. 1 Parsonage Yard with the Old House. To orientate you 4 is Pickford Yard (up Monysh Road) and 5 is Heald (Yeld). 

1860 Conveyance of property in Bakewell (including what we now call the Old House Museum) to the Duke of Devonshire

Transcribed for the 2000 journal by George Challenger with help from Trevor Brighton.

Mrs Brooke-Taylor has kindly let us copy for the museum’s archives the following document before it goes to the Derbyshire Record Office.

In 1860 the Rev. Godfrey Arkwright, Sir Richard Arkwright’s great grandson, sold all his property in Bakewell, notably Lumford Mill, to the Duke. The latter sold in lots his land at the top of Bakewell including the Parsonage Field and Hill Top. The Parsonage House, now the Old House Museum, and the gardens stretching down to Church Lane were bought by Cunningham, hence ‘Cunningham Place’. For this later story of the Old House see Marshall Jenkins’ article in Derbyshire Archaeolgical Journal for 1967, Ted Meeke’s article in our Journal for 1989 and mine in 1998. For the history of Lumford Mill see Derbyshire Archaeolgical Journal volume 79 with articles by M H Mackenzie and R Thornhill.

            NB italics indicate parts of words omitted in the document.

The plan with this article is transcribed from a slide in the museum’s collection.  

Abstract of the Title of His Grace The Duke of Devonshire to property at Bakewell.

(Inserted- produced & signed by me John Taylor 23 May 1861    Stamps to £72.10.0)

25th March 1860 by Indenture made between The Revd. Godfrey Harry Arkwright of Sutton in the County of Derby Clerk of the one part & The Most Noble William Duke of Devonshire of the other part.

Reciting that the said. Godfrey Harry Arkwright was seised in fee simple of the hereditaments hereinafter conveyed & was absolutely entitled to the machinery & chattels hereinafter assigned.

And reciting that the said Godfrey Harry Arkwright was possessed of the leasehold premises hereinafter assigned (deleted-not being any part of the hereditaments to which title is shown in this Abstract) for the residue of a certain term of 65 years created by an Indenture bearing date the 2nd day of January 1832 (inserted- and made between the most noble William Spencer 6th Duke of Devonshire of the one part and Horace Mason of the other part) (deleted- therein mentioned And that) (inserted- and reciting that) the reversion in fee simple in the said leasehold premises subject to the said Lease was vested in the said William Duke of Devonshire

And reciting that the said Godfrey Harry Arkwright had contracted with the said William Duke of Devonshire for the sale to him of the said hereditaments machinery chattels & leasehold premises for the sum of £14,500.

It is witnessed that in consideration of the sum of £14,500 to the said Godfrey Harry Arkwright paid by the said William Duke of Devonshire the receipt etc the said Godrey Harry Arkwright did grant & convey unto the said William Duke of Devonshire & his heirs

All & singular the messuages or tenements cotton mill pieces or parcels of land hereditaments particularly described in the Schedule hereto.

And all other the messuages buildings land cottages hereditaments & premises whatsoever of or belonging to him the said Godrey Harry Arkwright situate in Bakewell Ashford Holme & Great & Little Longstone in the County of Derby except the share of the said Godfrey Harry Arkwright in the house & premises called The New Inn in Bakewell assigned

Together with all franchises buildings etc

            And all the estate etc

To hold the same unto & to the use of the said William Duke of Devonshire his heirs & assigns for ever Subject as to such part or parts of the said premises as were liable thereto to the payment to the Dean & Chapter for the time being of the Cathedral Church of Lichfield of the annual rent or yearly sum of £16.3.11 ½ & to the quitrent of 20/- payable to the Duke of Rutland.

And it is further witnessed that in further pursuance of the said agreement & in consideration of the premises The said Godfrey Harry Arkwright did assign unto the said William Duke of Devonshire his executors administrators & assignees

            Certain machinery therein mentioned

And it is further witnessed that in further pursuance of said agreement & in consideration of the premises The said Godfrey Harry Arkwright Did surrender & assign unto the said William Duke of Devonshire his executors administrators & assignees

            (deleted- Certain pieces of land herein mentioned) (inserted- All those 2 Pieces or Parcels of land including the Bed of the ancient & new course of the River Wye & the site of 2 Reservoirs of water & all things other than the premises comprised in the said Indenture of lease of the 2nd day of January 1832 with the rights members & appurtenances thereto belonging)

            To the intent that the residue of the said term of 65 years might be merged in the inheritance of the said premises.

Covenants from the said Godrey Harry Arkwright that he had good right to convey for quiet enjoyment free from incumbrances & for future assurances (inserted- These covenants forewritten are absolute & unqualified in their language but there is no recital or other expression in the deed showing aliunde that it was the intention of the parties that absolute covenants should be given)

The Schedule contains (inter alia).

19 cottages in Bakewell with the gardens & appurtenances thereto belonging in the occupation of sundry persons vis. James Birchill Jemima Buxton Robert Bagshaw Isaac Bridden William Harrison Ann Howard Hannah Hibbert John Howarth Samuel Haslam Henry Matkin William Sims Robert Taylor William Wager Dorothy Lowe John Briddon Martha Gregory George Harrison Jane Wilson Henry Noton.

Smiths Shop near the new Street in the occupation of William Punchaby

Gardens on the “Top of the Hill” in the occupation of Abraham Berresford Richard Skidmore William Smith William Sims William Roberts Charles Waterfall & William Punchaby- Note William Roberts has two gardens.

In Bakewell Higgott John

Field…………………………..Meadow 7.2.20

(inserted -Executed by the said G H Arkwright & attested

Receipt for consideration money indorsed  Signed & witnessed)

Other documents lent for copying by Mrs Brooke-Taylor include the following two:

A plan entitled ‘A rough sketch of water in Ashford, Holme and Bakewell belonging to his Grace the Duke of Devonshire in 1831.’  This is a tracing of Lumford Mill’s waterworks with a table of ‘Land and water in the townships of Ashford, Holme & Bakewell leased to Horace Mason’.  They total 23 acres, 2 r. 26p.  ‘Rent £44.’ Also a ‘Table of Land & Water in the Townships of Ashford, Holme and Bakewell purchased by Robert Arkwright’.

‘A survey and valuation of Land and Water in Bakewell and Holme belonging to Richard Arkwright.

  •             Little Lumford in Bakewell              2.2.31
  •             Half of Old River in do.                       2.25
  •             Half of Old River in Holme                 1.14
  •             Land in                    do.                         22
  •                                                                         3.3.12    @ £80 per acre       £306.0.0
  •             The new Cut River adjoining the
  •                    Duke of Rutland’s land              1.16
  •                                                                         4.0.28

‘The above Parcel of Land and Water extends Southwesterly to land in the Duke of Rutland and Southeasterly to the Waste Water Cut and to the Stakes set down at the foot of Bank on theSoutheast side of it.

Bakewell Feb. 15th 1831     George Unwin

                                                William Gauntly

A Rough Sketch of Land and Water in Bakewell and Holme belonging to Richard Arkwright

Feby 1831

Scale of 3 chains in an inch

  • No 1    Little Lumford in Bakewell              2.2.31
  •       2   Half of Old River in do.                       2.25
  •       2   Half of do. in Holme                            1.14
  •       3   Land in         do.                                      22
  •                                                                         3.3.12             @ £80 per acre        £306
  •       4  River Wye New Cut in Bakewell       1.24
  •                                                                         4.0.36

George Unwin’

No plan with this